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Re: Ferdinand and Caroline
It seems to be a title that has been used in the Scandinavian countries on an ad hoc basis to deal with specific circumstances.
His oldest son became King Christian 8. and the younger, Ferdinand was known as Hereditary Prince and was married to his cousin, Caroline af Danmark - daughter of King Frederik.
Prince Ferdinand received the title Hereditary Prince on 26 January 1848 - a few days after his childless nephew, Frederik VII, acceded to the throne. Ferdinand was then the heir presumptive. Interestingly, his wife Caroline had the title Crown Princess until she got married. Not because she could inherit the throne, but because she was the King's (Frederik VI's) oldest daughter. The definition of 'Crown Princess' later changed to the wife of the Crown Prince.