I do not think that it is fair or accurate to say that "James II died a bitter man".
If there is anything James believed in it was Divine Providence. He firmly believed that creation was held in the just and merciful hands of Almighty God. It is certainly true (as it is for all of us) that he may not have understood the workings of Divine Providence. I do not believe that he would have described Almighty God as having "abandoned his cause" - although certainly there was a temporal setback.
At the time of his death, James II had seen the judgement of God pass terribly upon his rebellious daughters. His elder daughter Mary had had three stillborn children (and no others). His younger daughter Anne had had no less than eighteen children (many still born, but all predeceasing their mother and grandfather). William and Mary and Anne had no surviving progeny.
James himself on the other hand had (in addition to Anne) a reasonably healthy son and daughter who survived him.
At James II's death in 1712 there was every reason for him to hope for the restoration of his son as king of England and Scotland. The proposed future succession of the Elector of Hannover was anything but popular. But in spite of lots of gossip and conspiracies that succession did occur de facto. Even then there were two significant risings in favour of the senior line (in 1715 and 1745), to say nothing of several more minor attempts.
As for myself, I thank Steven for his concern for my welfare. I certainly pray that I will not die a bitter man (and if I do, I don't think it would be on account of the King's Majesty not having been restored in my lifetime).
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