To the best of my knowledge, Queen Mary of the UK (widow of King George V) is the only royal to witness the accession of a grandchild -- her granddaughter Elizabeth II, who became queen regnant in 1952.
King Christian IX of Denmark was still living, when in 1905 a grandson got elected as King Haakon VII of Norway. Another grandson became Czar Nicholas II of Russia, but that was in 1894, before the 20th century -- although it was close enough.
King Gustaf V of Sweden was still living, when in 1947 his granddaughter Ingrid became the queen of Denmark, as the consort of King Frederik IX. His own son and successor, King Gustaf VI Adolf, was likewise still living, when in 1972 Ingrid's own daughter ascended the Danish throne as Queen Margrethe II.
Both grandmothers of King Baudouin of the Belgians (Princess Ingeborg of Denmark and Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria) were still living, when in 1951 he succeeded to the throne upon the abdication of his father. In fact, Queen Elisabeth was still living as of 1964, when her granddaughter Josephine-Charlotte (Baudouin's elder sister) became the consort of Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg.
Princess Adelheid of Anhalt-Dessau, widow of Grand Duke Adolphe, was still living, when in 1912 her granddauhter succeeded as Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide of Luxembourg.
Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia, Duchess of Brunswick, witnessed the accessions in 1964 of her grandson as King Constantine II of the Hellenes and in 1975 of her granddaughter as Queen Sofia of Spain.
Princess Marie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, consort of King Ferdinand of Romania, witnessed the accessions of two grandsons when they were minors -- King Michael of Romania in 1927 and King Peter II of Yugoslavia in 1934.
Prince Simeon of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was also a minor, at the time of his accession in 1943 as Tsar of the Bulgarians: as of then, three of his four grandparents were still living.
Infanta Maria Teresa of Portugal (1855-1944) witnessed the accession of her grandson a Prince Franz Josef II of Liechtenstein, in 1938.
Both grandmothers of King Manuel II of Portugal (Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans and Princess Maria Pia of Savoy) were still living, when in 1908 he unexpectedly succeeded to the throne upon the dual regicides of his father and older brother.
Are there additional examples? If not in the 20th century, then perhaps one could expand the discussion to the 19th ...
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