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Re: King Maximilian I of Bavaria
To find a reigning ancestor to all 10 current hereditary monarchies, one has to go back to Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (+1711)
King George I of Great Britain is a common ancestor for all but Liechtenstein & Monaco.
Empress Maria Theresia (Habsburg ancestress) is also an ancestor of the current King of Belgium and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
I believe he has six direct descendants living today, who are reigning monarchs in Europe -- namely, the sovereigns of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Liechtenstein. That's actually the same number claimed by King Christian IX of Denmark (the so-called "Father-in-Law of Europe"), and one more than Queen Victoria of Great Britain.
What I'm interested in are additional examples of past royals (within the last two centuries) who belonged to dynasties no longer reigning today, who nevertheless have sovereign descendants. Is it true that only two sovereigns today (Spain and Liechtenstein) are descended from the Habsburgs?
The five Protestant kings are out; the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in Belgium war originally Protestant (and King Leopold II had no surviving son by Archduchess Marie Henriette). The House of Nassau-Weilburg in Luxembourg was also originally Protestant. And the Grimaldis don't seem to have strong genealogical ties to other European dynasties.
That being said, the Prince of Monaco is a direct descendant of Stéphanie de Beauharnais; ditto for the King of the Belgians and the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Since Eugène de Beauharnais (her second cousin) is a direct ancestor of the three Scandinavian monarchs, this would make the Beauharnais dynasty well- represented.
Did I miss any?
What about the Romanovs? Any czar(ina) with multiple sovereign descendants today? I know that the King of Spain would count, and that one day the United Kingdom will as well (since the Prince Consort is a direct descendant of Nicholas I).
As for Dom Miguel I of Portugal, I believe he has only three sovereign descendants today (i.e. Belgium, Luxembourg, and Liechtenstein). Any others?