I looked at my various books on the subject, and at some articles I found on the internet, and it seems that Prince Philip gave only one blood sample. Once his DNA had been extracted and mapped, he would not have needed to give a later sample. Yes, there were samples taken from at least living Romanov descendants as well. Some of the sources are named in this extract from an article in an academic journal: "DNA testing of the remains recovered in 1991 was conducted by Dr. Peter Gill, formerly of the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and Dr. Pavel Ivanov, a Russian geneticist . Nuclear DNA testing of five STR markers confirmed the sex of the skeletons and established a familial relationship among the remains of the Tsar, the Tsarina and three of their daughters recovered from the grave. Previous mtDNA testing (outlined in Figure S1) confirmed a maternal relationship between HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Tsarina, and her three daughters. The Duke of Fife and Princess Xenia Cheremeteff Sfiri, maternal relatives of Nicholas were used to reassociate the putative remains of the Tsar. A single point heteroplasmy at position 16169 (C/T = “Y”) was observed in the mtDNA sequence of the Tsar, whereas his maternal relatives were fixed for 16169 T. To confirm the authenticity of the heteroplasmy, DNA testing conducted at the Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFDIL) compared the mtDNA haplotype from the remains of Grand Duke Georgij Romanov (d. 1899), brother of Tsar Nicholas II . Both Tsar Nicholas II and Grand Duke Georgij Romanov shared the same point heteroplasmy at 16169 – but in differing ratios. The Tsar was mostly C/t while his brother was mostly T/c." Here is a link to the full article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2652717/
. Here are two more articles that provide details on the DNA testing of the Romanov remains and the comparisons to lliving relatives: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/resurrecting-the-czar-64545030/
Can somebody clarify me on the subject of the Romanov remains, uncovered in the 1990's? If I understand correctly, the bodies of two family members were missing at the time of the first discovery. But on the basis of notes and letters left by the Bolsheviks, the missing ones were recovered at a separate location, later on.
Did Prince Philip of Great Britain, then, donate a second blood sample for mitochondrial DNA testing? I know he did the first time around -- thereby enabling the investigators to identify some of the Romanov remains. But since the second discovery was made later, I would assume that a second donation would have had to be made. Certainly there is no dearth of living relatives who share the same DNA with the Czarina Alexandra and her children.
There are fewer living persons sharing the same mitochondrial DNA with Czar Nicholas II; but they do exist. Did any such relatives donate any blood sample for testing? I hear that the Russians were eager enough to identify the Romanovs, so as to exhume the body of his father, Czar Alexander III, to compare the Y-chromosome DNAs. But such a move would have been unnecessary and cumbersome: it's easier to track down living maternal collateral descendants, than to disturb the remains of a dead person.
Of course, it takes more than just DNA to specifically identify any corpse: I believe photographic analysis got used (such as examining facial bone structure), to piece together the different skeletons and establish the various identities.
Is it true that the forensic analysts went one step further and used modern molecular biology to determine facts such as gender and age at death, when examining the bones?