No officially the title crown prince or crown princess does not exist in the Dutch monarchy.
The constitution speaks of the heir(ess) presumptive of the monarch. As you wrote male heirs were always styled Prince of Orange.
When Wilhelmina was born she was not expected to succeed. With two males in line of succession of her father King Willem III (her youngest half-brother Alexander and great-uncle Frederik) there were several scenario's that might have lead to her being very far from the throne.
Had Alexander succeeded their father and married his offspring would have preceded Wilhelmina.
Had Frederik outlived his nephew Willem III and great-nephew Alexander he would have succeeded. The throne would have continued in his line and princess Marie of the Netherlands, Furstin von Wied would have succeeded him as the woman closest to the king even though her older sister had left a daughter.
Only when both male dynasts had died in 1884 did Wilhelmina become first in line of succession. She had become the heiress presumptive according to the Dutch constitution and in the English meaning of the word as any son born to her parents would have overtaken her in the line of succession.
Her official styling remained HRH princess Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, princess of Orange-Nassau.
Her daughter and granddaughters had the same style with their first name. Juliana was also duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Beatrix, Irene, Margriet and Christina princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld.
In the Kingdom Wilhelmina was never styled princess of Luxembourg even though as the daughter of the ruling Grand Duke she would have had the right to use that title.
In the media and in public crown prince and crown princess have been used for generations, but officially neither title exists in the Dutch monarchy.
Was Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands ever styled with this title? I believe both her daughter (who became Queen Juliana) and granddaughter (who became Queen Beatrix) were. I'm not sure if Juliana was styled thus from birth. Certainly Beatrix was not, although she may have been, once her mother succeeded to the Dutch throne ...
The fact is that the Crown Prince title has traditionally been reserved (if used at all) for the eldest son of a king. Until 1980, when Sweden became the first country to adopt fully cognatic primogeniture for her succession law, such a person would have always been heir-apparent to the throne (at least in Europe, whatever might be said about other continents, where some kings with sons have been known to be succeeded by brothers).
And the Crown Princess title would have applied to his wife (assuming that the marriage was dynastic). It has been explained that this was precisely why Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, from 1953 (when the constitution was amended to permit female succession, under the male-preferred primogeniture law) until 1972 (her accession to the throne), was called "Throne Follower", not Crown Princess.
Which made sense, in light of tradition. And in light of the fact that all three Dutch queens regnant were likewise only heirs-presumptive to the throne, not heirs-apparent, one would think that some title other than Crown Princess would have applied to each.
Certainly in today's world, there are no complications with styling Victoria of Sweden, Catharine-Amalia of the Netherlands, and Elisabeth of Belgium thus. Ingrid Alexandra of Norway should also, in due time, receive such a title.
But what of the Dutch heiresses who came before?