• Darwin predicted that human ancestors arose in Africa based on homologies with African ape species and that Africa was the most likely place to find fossils of these ancestors.
• The prediction that organisms in rapidly changing, heterogeneous environments would have higher mutation rates. They do as per Oliver, Antonio et al. 2000. High frequency of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis lung infection. Science 288: 1251-1253.
• Daeschler & Schubin predicted that a fish-amphibian transitional would be found in specific strata. It was. Tiktaalik rosea.
• Predator-prey dynamics are altered in predictable ways by the evolution of prey species. Yoshida, T., L. E. Jones, S. P. Ellner, G. F. Fussmann and N. G. Hairston Jr. 2003. Rapid evolution drives ecological dynamics in a predator-prey system. Nature 424: 303-306
• Darwin predicted that transitional fossils would be found demonstrating the link between reptiles and birds. Today over 40 fossil species demonstrate a broad range of morphological attributes spanning both the dinosaur & avian clades.
• Different, parallel authors predicted that the ancestor of craniates would display certain specific characteristics. They were right and this prediction is demonstrated when the fossil Haikouella was found.
• "Insect wings evolved from gills, with an intermediate stage of skimming on the water surface. Since the primitive surface-skimming condition is widespread among stoneflies, J. H. Marden predicted that stoneflies would likely retain other primitive traits, too. This prediction led to the discovery in stoneflies of functional hemocyanin, used for oxygen transport in other arthropods but never before found in insects".
• Based on his theory, Darwin also predicted some 40 years before its discovery, the existence of a moth (Xanthopan morgani). He based this prediction on experiments performed on the orchid Angraecum sesquipedale, which had a "foot long" nectary". Wallace was even more specific and predicted it would most probably be a Hawk moth. Both men were proved right.
Just a few predictions but by no means a definitive list.
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