I do lots of SmartMusic assignments. Many of them recur every year. Major scales, exercises from Foundations. Sometimes concert music. That depends on the piece, SmartMusic doesn't do well with a lot of high school literature.
We also do playing tests. In class I might just go down the row on a measure or two. Sometimes I have kids record themselves playing a section of music, or maybe the whole piece. All-region music is done outside of class, students who want to audition must send me recordings or come after school (extra credit grades, but counts toward my quota). I grade those on a very simple scale of 100, 70, or 0. I used to give very detailed feedback, but found that most kids either knew already what needed to be fixed or they didn't care. I have a rubric that I can break out if I'm ever questioned on this grading scale.
After-school rehearsals are a 100 or a 0, either you came or you didn't.
Performances are a test grade. Show up, do what you're supposed to do, and you get a 100. Points come off for being late, not having the right clothes/supplies etc, not having good audience behavior. In theory I could take off points for not playing well, but in 20 years of doing this I've only done that once, for a kid who was intentionally sabotaging the performance. I have a rubric and can justify the grade using the TEKS and lots of edu-speak.
We do some written assignments. I have kids listen to a piece and respond to it. After a major performance (contest, concert, not a football game) we watch the video and the kids answer some simple questions about what was good and how we can improve for next time.
Any time there's an opportunity to go above and beyond, it's worth a grade (often a test grade). Audition for all-region - bonus points if you make it. Audition for area. Take a small ensemble to contest - bonus points for a Div I. Take a solo to contest. Anyone who opts out of those gets an "exempt" in the gradebook, so it doesn't hurt them, but those who did the extra work get some extra points.
Students who take care of their business and do what they're supposed to do will always make an A. It's not a free A, but it's also not a hard A. My top performers will have an average over 100, though the report card only records it as 100. It's possible to fail band, and students do every year.
At the end of the 6 weeks, my students' grades line up very close to what I would have given them, if I were allowed to just subjectively assign them a score. Too bad I can't do that.