And in the case of Carl XIII, this link works for both his thrones; he was outlived by his predecessor in Norway as well as his predecessor in Sweden...
The complete list, then, runs like this (with predecessors' names and year of death in parentheses):
1. Christoffer of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, d. 1448 (Erik of Pomerania, d. 1459)
2. Maximilian II, King of Bavaria, d. 1864 (Ludwig I, d. 1868)
3. Go-Momozono (Hidehito), Emperor of Japan, d. 1779 (Empress Go-Sakuramachi (Toshiko), d. 1813)
4. Erik "XII" Magnusson, King of Sweden, d. 1359 (Magnus Eriksson, d. 1374 - who of course was his successor as well as his predecessor)
5. George VI, King of the UK, d. 1952 (Edward VIII, d. 1972)
6. Mary II, Queen of England and Scotland, d. 1694 (James II/VII, d. 1701)
7. Elisaveta, Empress of Russia, d. 1762 (Ivan VI, d. 1764)
8. Carl XIII/II, King of Sweden and Norway, d. 1818 (in Sweden: Gustaf IV Adolf, d. 1837; in Norway: Christian Frederik, d. 1848)
9. Ruprecht of the Palatinate, King of Germany and King of the Romans (Emperor-Elect), d. 1410 (Wenzel (Wenceslas), d. 1419)
10. Carl X Gustaf, King of Sweden, d. 1660 (Christina, d. 1689)
11. Süleyman II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, d. 1691 (Mehmet IV, d. 1693)
12. Carl IX, King of Sweden, d. 1611 (Sigismund, d. 1632)
13. Boris III, King of Bulgaria, d. 1943 (Ferdinand I, d. 1948)
: They all succeeded someone who either
: abdicated or was deposed.
: --Previous Message--
: Between them, Robert, José and René have now
: identified all the 13 people in this quiz,
: but so far there have been no suggestions
: for the link.
: So here's a small hint: it has something to
: do with their predecessors.
: --Previous Message--
: 13 monarchs with something in common:
: 1. I was king of three countries. After my
: death, my widow married my successor.
: 2. I had two sons, both of whom succeeded me
: on the throne. One was at best rather
: eccentric, the other was clearly insane and
: incapable of ruling.
: 3. My predecessor, my aunt, was the last
: female monarch of my country (so far??). I
: had no direct heir, so I adopted a distant
: relative who succeeded me.
: 4. I was a king, and I married the daughter
: of an emperor. My wife and I both died very
: young. I probably died of the plague, while
: my wife died either of the plague or giving
: birth to our stillborn son.
: 5. I succeeded to the throne rather
: unexpectedly and very reluctantly, but my
: wife gave me valuable support.
: 6. I reigned jointly with my spouse after my
: father had to leave.
: 7. I was an empress who never produced an
: heir. I was officially unmarried, but I may
: have married my lover secretly. My nephew
: who succeeded me didn’t last long.
: 8. I was old and already senile when I came
: to the throne. Moreover, I was childless, so
: the Parliament had to elect my successor -
: twice, since the first one died very soon.
: 9. I reigned in an empire, but I never had
: the coronation that would have given me the
: most prominent title. More than three
: centuries would pass before someone from my
: house sat on this throne again. My grandson
: is also in this quiz.
: 10. I was the first king of my dynasty when
: I succeeded my cousin. During my brief
: reign, my kingdom was considerably enlarged.
: 11. Before my accession, I had spent most of
: my life in confinement, and when some people
: came to inform me of my accession, I thought
: at first that they were going to murder me.
: My health was not good, and my reign was
: rather short.
: 12. I was a king, and my father’s youngest
: son. Two of my elder brothers had also been
: on the throne before me. Like #9, I also
: have a grandson somewhere in this quiz.
: 13. I was a king who died unexpectedly,
: shortly after returning from a meeting with
: a foreign Head of State. Some people believe
: I had been poisoned.
: Same procedure as every year, James... - who
: are we, and what is the link?
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