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The Infante D. Carlos de Borbon y Farnese in 1731 became duke of Parma and hereditary grand duke of Tuscany. By the treaty of Vienna of 1736 he ceased to reign in Parma and Piacenza and it was accepted by the powers that the duke of Lorraine would become Grand Duke of Tuscany. Nonetheless, the Kings of Naples and Sicily (as Carlos became de facto in 1734 and by this same treaty was recognised as such by the Emperor), never abandoned their titles of duke of Parma and Piacenza and hereditary grand duke of Tuscany. The Emperor Charles VI continued to style himself as Most Catholic Majesty and the Pope, in correspondence, continued to style him such until his death (even though the Papal official position was to recognise the Bourbon kings). Meanwhile the title of Archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy, etc, continued to be included among the full titles of the Kings of Spain until the end of the monarchy in 1931.
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